Borneo is an alternative name for the island of Kalimantan and arose as a result of a Portuguese merchant’s pronunciation, followed by other Europeans in the 17th century against the name of Brunei (“Barune”, according to Negarakertagama or “Dahak-Waruni”. An important trade port for forestry products Lorenzo de Gomez first visited the island in 1518.
Kalimantan is often used to refer to the island of Borneo as a whole, including Sabah, Sarawak and Brunei. The word “Kalimantan” which is largely a former territory of the Banjar Kingdom is used to refer to parts of the island administered by Indonesia.
The island of Borneo is located on the north of Java island, east of Melaka Strait, west of Sulawesi island and the southern Philippines. The total island of Borneo is 743,330 km².
The island of Borneo is surrounded by the South China Sea in the west and north-west, the Sulu Sea in the north-east, the Celebes Sea and the Makassar Strait in the east and the Java Sea and the Karimata Strait in the south.
Mount Kinabalu (4095 m) located in Sabah, Malaysia is the highest location in Borneo. In addition there is also Mount Trench, Lumut Mountain, and Mount Liangpran.
The longest rivers in Kalimantan are the Kapuas River (1143 km) in West Kalimantan, Indonesia, Barito River (880 km) in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, Mahakam River (980 km) in East Kalimantan, Indonesia, Rajang River (562.5 km ) In Sarawak, Malaysia.
There are 5 basic cultures of indigenous communities of Austronesian clans in Kalimantan or Ethnic Orang Kalimantan ie Malay, Dayak, Banjar, Kutai and Paser. While the BPS census in 2010, ethnic groups contained in Kalimantan Indonesia is grouped into three namely the tribe Banjar, Indonesian Dayak tribe (268 tribes) and other Borneo tribes (non Dayak and non Banjar). The Malay occupies the Karimata islands and areas of West Kalimantan, Sarawak, Brunei to the coast of Sabah. Kutai and Paser tribes occupy the area of East Kalimantan. While the Dayak tribe occupies the interior of Borneo. The existence of many Chinese people in Singkawang and Pontianak city can be equated with Chinese Benteng community who live in Tangerang City near Jakarta. Indeed some cities on the island of Kalimantan are politically occupied by the majority of immigrant tribes such as Hakka (Singkawang), Javanese (Balikpapan, Samarinda), Bugis (Balikpapan, Samarinda, Pagatan, Nunukan, Tarakan, Tawau) and so on.